world is becoming more international by the day. English is
increasingly used as the Lingua Franca of business management,
transport and shipping, science and technology, computers,
education, and legal affairs, to name a few.
make European Higher Education more competitive and more
Europeans and for students and scholars from other
continents, the Bologna
Declaration of June 1999 has put in motion
a series of
included Europe-wide adoption of the
Anglo-Saxon Bachelor-Master system,
enhanced quality assurance
procedures and improved recognition, synchronisation and
compatibility. To facilitate smooth international
transitions in all
disciplines, the number of classes taught in English
on European industry and businesses
to a growing need for internationally recognised certificates, the
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) was developed for assessing proficiency
levels, also affecting industry. European job descriptions increasingly
contain English language requirements referring to these proficiency
levels. In parallel, so are text books for language study.
European Framework (CEFR)
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
describes in great
detail what a language learner should be able to do
at a particular
level of proficiency. Five different skills are distinguished:
writing, listening, spoken production, spoken interaction.
skill, six levels are defined:
and A2: Basic User
and B2: Independent User
and C2: Proficient User
University offers certificates in
English ranging from
beginner to near-native level.
can be obtained from Cambridge
University Press (English Language
in the Netherlands are organised by the British
(International English Language Testing
System) is an English
proficiency test for academic and general English.
(Test of English As a Foreign
Language) is an English proficiency test
that is used as an admission test in universities around the world.
provides a web-based test in many languages, where you can learn about
your strengths and weaknesses in a foreign language, and determine your
own proficiency level (test
Take a test!
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